Geoff And Francis

How to Formulate a Research Problem in your PhD Research Proposal

There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate  to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between variables. At the very outset, the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, i.e, he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject matter that he would like to inquire into. Initially, the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities, if any related to the problem, are resolved. Then the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus constitutes the first step in a scientific inquiry. Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly, and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.   

The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss it with one’s own colleagues or with those having expertise in the matter.  Often, a problem is put in general terms and is up to the researcher to narrow it down and phrase the problem in the operational terms. In private business units or governmental organisations, the problem is usually earmarked by administrative agencies with whom the researcher can discuss as to how the problem originally came out and what possible considerations are involved in its possible solutions.

The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself acquainted with the selected problem. He may review two types of literature- the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories, and empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier which are one similar to the one proposed. The basic outcome of the review will be the knowledge as to what data and other materials are available for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his own research problem in a meaningful context. After this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms i.e., to put the problem in as specific terms as possible.

This task of formulating, or defining the research problem to be investigated must be defined as ambiguously for that will help discriminating relevant data from the irrelevant ones. Care must, however, be taken to verify objectivity and validity of the background facts concerning the problem. The statement of the objective is of basic importance because it determines the data which is to be collected, the characteristics of the data which are relevant, relations which are to be explored, the choice of certain pertinent terms, the same should be clearly defined along with the task of formulating the problem. In fact, formulation of the problem always follows a sequential pattern where a number of formulations are set up, each formulation more specific than the preceding one, each one phrased in more analytical terms, and each more realistic in terms of the available data and resources.

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