Geoff And Francis

Specifying the inclusion and exclusion criteria for systematic literature review

Starting your inclusion and exclusion criteria before you conduct the review is important. This section is  Where you describe the criteria that you will be using to include any research studies in your review. Torgerson (2003) suggests that a high quality systematic review should have inclusion and exclusion Criteria that are ‘rigorously and transparently reported a priori (before you start the review) ‘(Torgerson 2003:26). You may well ask ‘ Why is it necessary’? The reason is so that your search can target the Papers that will answer your questions and exclude any irrelevant ones. The criteria need to be explicit And applied stringently. The criteria you will need to describe the types of research studies you will be Including , the participants, the interventions, comparative groups and outcome measures. PICO now Becomes PICOT. For qualitative systematic reviews use PEO( which will now become PEOT). read...

How to Formulate a Research Problem in your PhD Research Proposal

There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate  to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between variables. At the very outset, the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, i.e, he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject matter that he would like to inquire into. Initially, the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities, if any related to the problem, are resolved. Then the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus constitutes the first step in a scientific inquiry. Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly, and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.    read...

Preparing for Interviews – Guide for Qualitative Research

There are many different types of question that can be asked and in many different ways. What is common to all questions, though, is that they must be worded in a way that is understood by the respondents and to which respondents can relate. This means ensuring that there are minority-language versions of the questionnaire if the sample is likely to include people who speak a language is unlikely to be sufficiently good to be able to complete an interview in it. By denying sections of the survey population the opportunity to participate in the study, the questionnaire writer is effectively disenfranchising them from influencing the findings. For many studies commissioned by the public sector in countries, it is important that the interview is capable of being conducted in any language that is spoken by a significant number of people in the any language that is the spoken by a significant number of people in the survey population to avoid the danger of disenfranchisement. In the UK Many government studies require questionnaire versions in Welsh, Urdu, Hindi and other languages, and in USA a Spanish-language version will often be required. read...

An introduction to Data Mining & its Applications in Bioinformatics

With the increasing importance of bioinformatics in agriculture, molecular medicine, microbial genome applications, etc. the research in this field has gained momentum than ever before. Bioinformatics, also known as computational biology, deals with interpreting biological data by using computer science and information technology. Of lately, research in bioinformatics has produced vast amounts of data and will continue to generate proteomic, genomic, etc. data. To analyze and gain deep insights into such biological data necessitates making sense of the information by inferring the data. For instance, gene classification, protein structure prediction, clustering of gene expression data, protein-protein interactions, etc. These processes, in turn, increases the need for interaction between bioinformatics and data mining.   read...

Spoiler Alert! Know the key secrets to outstanding oral research presentation at conferences

Writing, submitting and defending your research paper are the biggest challenges you have to overcome to accomplish your PhD degree. However, merely presenting your research in front of your peers or your internal review committee wouldn’t add much value to your academic career. To be recognised as a professional researcher and to showcase your study, you must present your paper in academic conferences or seminars. read...

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